Glaucoma – Causes, Types, Risk Factors

 Glaucoma – Causes, Types, Risk Factors

Glaucoma is a group of progressive eye disease that occurs due to increased pressure inside the eye. It is one of the leading cause of irreversible blindness.

The increased pressure in the eye damages the optic nerve that transmit images to the brain which can lead to vision loss or permanent blindness.

At the early stage, the disease shows no obvious symptoms, but can be diagnosed through regular eye test. If it is diagnosed early, additional vision loss and total blindness could be prevented.


When the aqueous humour fluid inside the eye is blocked, the liquid builds up, increasing pressure inside the eye, this is called intraocular pressure which may damage your optic nerve. 


There are five main types of glaucoma;

  • Primary open angle or chronic Glaucoma – is a silence condition that hardly shows any symptoms until the vision started having permanent damage.
  • Secondary Glaucoma – This mostly occurs due to injury to the eyes . Other causes includes diabetes, eye disease such as cataracts, or eye tumours.
  • Congenital Glaucoma – is an inherited type. This condition occurs in young children that was born with abnormalities in their eye’s drainage system. 
  • Angle-Closure or Acute glaucoma – occurs when the flow of aqueous humour fluid is blocked causing pressure inside the eye as more fluid is made. 
  • Normal Tension Glaucoma – Generally shows no symptoms. It is believed that it occurs due to lack of blood flow to the arteries in the optic nerve.

Risk Factors

  1. Eye trauma – can increases pressure in your eyes.
  2. Diabetes – Your chances increases if you have diabetes
  3. Family history – This means it is hereditary

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